Illegal BAC Limits


Department of Justice. (2019). Impaired Driving Laws. Full Details

European Transport Safety Council. (2019). Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Drink Driving Limits. Full Details

Fine, S. (June 8, 2017). Courts shaken by search for solutions to delays. Globe and Mail.

Fell, J. C., & Voas, R. B. (2014). The effectiveness of a 0.05 blood alcohol concentration (bac) limit for driving in the u nited s tates. Addiction, 109(6), 869-874.

Peck, R. C., Gebers, M. A., Voas, R. B., & Romano, E. (2008). The relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age, and crash risk. Journal of safety research, 39(3), 311-319.

R. v. Jordan, 2016 SCC 27, [2016] 1 S.C.R. 631Most European and North American nations have a BAC limit of .05 or .08, with allowable BACs ranging from .02 to .10. Comparison of the administrative and criminal BAC limits and penalties that may be applied to first offenders in Canada, and penalties for a first offence in those countries with a .05 BAC limit. Implications for lowering the BAC within Canada are examined. 

Roberston, R. D., Vanlaar, W. G. M., & Simpson, H. (2009). National Survey of Crown Prosecutors and Defence Counsel on Impaired Driving. Traffic Injury Research Foundation: Ottawa, Ontario.

Robertson, R. D., Brown, S. W., Valentine, D., & Vanlaar, W. G. M. (2018). Status of alcohol-impaired driving in Canada. Traffic Injury Research Foundation: Ottawa, Ontario.

Senate Canada. 2016. “Delaying justice is denying justice. An urgent need to address lengthy court delays in Canada.” Report of the Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs. (accessed August 12, 2016).

Soloman, R., Ellis, C., & Zheng, C. (2018). Persons charged with, and persons convicted of, an impaired driving offense: Canada, 1977-2015/16. Mothers Against Drunk Driving.

Statistics Canada. (2020). Table  35-10-0027-01   Adult criminal courts, number of cases and charges by type of decision. DOI:

Voas, R. B., Torres, P., Romano, E., & Lacey, J. H. (2012). Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, 73(3), 341-350.

Zador, P. L., Krawchuk, S. A., & Voas, R. B. (2000). Alcohol-related relative risk of driver fatalities and driver involvement in fatal crashes in relation to driver age and gender: an update using 1996 data. Journal of studies on alcohol, 61(3), 387-395.